Revelation: Chapter 12


As seen in the chronology of Revelation, John is viewing all of the events from heaven where a war in heaven occurs, and Satan is permanently kicked out of heaven. Thereafter, John observes the events on earth after Satan's expulsion from heaven.

Revelation 12:1-17 and Revelation 13:1-18 provide many details to what was voiced by the 24 elders in Revelation 11:15-18. After the sounding of the 7th trumpet, the 24 elders fell on their faces worshiping God. They proclaimed the events that are yet to unfold from the blowing of the 7th trumpet to the end of the tribulation. The details provided in Revelation 12:1-17 and Revelation 13:1-18 will come to fruition during the time from the pause after the 7th trumpet through the end of the bowl judgments. This period of time is the last half of the seven years of tribulation, and is called the great tribulation, Mathew 24:24-30. These two chapters in Revelation provide significant details of the main characters during the great tribulation. Other supporting prophetic passages go all the way back to Genesis 37:9 with Joseph and his dreams through the end of the great tribulation.

The events unfolded in these two chapters graphically illustrate the evil, brutality, and the extent of Satan's power, the Antichrist, and the false prophet. The sovereignty of God is evidenced through the preservation of the remnant of Israel and seeing those who call upon His name through this most difficult time. There are also two signs in heaven introduced in this chapter, the woman with child to be delivered and the red dragon. The following table lists the seven significant characters introduced in Revelation 12:1-17 and Revelation 13:1-18 who will take part in the great tribulation.

# Character Associated With Passage
1 The pregnant woman The nation of Israel Revelation 12:1-2
2 The red dragon Satan Revelation 12:3-4
3 The Son Jesus Christ Revelation 12:5
4 Michael Archangel Revelation 12:7-12
5 The offspring of the woman Tribulation Saints Revelation 12:17
6 The seven headed beast Antichrist Revelation 13:1-4
7 Another beast out of the earth False prophet Revelation 13:11-17


Verses Topic
1-2 A great sign in heaven, a pregnant woman
3-4 Another sign in heaven, a red dragon
5 The birth of the Son
6 The fleeing woman
7-12 The war in heaven, and the 3rd woe
13-17 The persecution by the dragon
  • A great sign in heaven, a pregnant woman
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In Revelation 12:1, the first great wonder appeared in heaven. This is the first time that the terms wonder or sign are given in the book of Revelation. This distinction gives credence to the literal interpretation of all the previous objects described. The first sign is a woman is clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars. The woman is clothed with illumination, and a reflector at her feet. The vision with the sun, moon, and 12 stars was similar to the dreams that Joseph had concerning his family before being betrayed by his brothers, Genesis 37:9-11. Through the dreams of Joseph, a direct connection is made between the woman in this chapter as a representation the nation of Israel. There is no association of this woman with any other person or entity in human history.

The woman is not taken literally, but is symbolic of the nation Israel, Isaiah 9:6. In this passage "us" refers to the nation of Israel. Israel was separated by God from all the other peoples of the world to fulfill His promises and to show Himself to the world through them, Deuteronomy 7:6-9, Romans 9:4-5. With this identification, Israel was given the responsibility to receive and preserve the word of God that was delivered to them, Deuteronomy 4:5-8, Romans 3:1-2. Through Israel were given all the promises concerning Jesus Christ, and Israel was the nation through whom would come the messiah, the sin bearer of the world, Genesis 3:14-15, Genesis 12:3, Genesis 22:18, Genesis 28:10-14, Genesis 49:10, 2Samuel 7:12-16, Isaiah 7:14, Isaiah 9:6, Matthew 1:1, Romans 1:3.

The woman is further described as being clothed with illumination, and a reflector at her feet. The woman clothed with the sun is symbolic of God and how He had clothed Israel only from among all the nations, with His word, Psalms 147:19-20. The moon and its phases are used for establishing the religious calendar and all the celebrations and feasts that relate to it. These are established through the laws of God given to Israel through Moses. The moon also represents the establishment of the kingly line through David, and its permanency established through Christ, where the moon provides the testament that this line through Israel will last forever, Psalms 89:35-37. The crown of 12 stars on the woman's head represents the 12 tribes of Israel, Genesis 37:9-11. Finally, contrast this to the seven candlesticks shown in Revelation 2 and Revelation 3 which represents the church.

Israel was separated by God from all the other peoples of the world to create a new nation through whom God would reveal Himself to the nations. Israel was the only nation God made covenants with, and through His promises revealed Himself to them, Deuteronomy 7:6-9, Romans 9:4-5.

  • Israel was given the responsibility to receive and preserve the word of God that was delivered to them, Deuteronomy 4:5-8, Romans 3:1-2
  • Israel was given promises that pointed to the Messiah being born through the nation of Israel and that He would be the sin bearer of the world, Genesis 3:15, 12:3, 22:18, 28:10-14, 49:10, 2Samuel 7:12-16, Isaiah 7:14, 9:6, Matthew 1:1, Romans 1:3
  • Israel, as a nation, was persecuted greatly by Satan throughout their history because through them came Jesus, God’s gift to the world, Revelation 12:1, John 3:15

In Revelation 12:2, the woman is pregnant and cried out as she was about to give birth. The travail is mentioned in Isaiah 66:7-10. The child (Jesus Christ) was born before the travail. Israel's travail will occur during the tribulation, after Christ's birth at least two millennia before the tribulation period. In the days of the invasion of King Nebuchadnezzar into Judea and the destruction of Jerusalem, which began the age of the Gentiles, the Lord recorded that event as Israel writhing in agony as a woman in labor, Micah 4:9-10. The thought continues further in time, from the middle of the tribulation through its end, where Israel again will be in agony before the return and deliverance by the Messiah, Micah 4:11-12. The very last verse is a prophecy of the Lords victory over His enemies, Micah 4:13. These are the days Jeremiah spoke of as the time of Jacob's trouble, Jeremiah 30:4-7.

  • Another sign in heaven, a red dragon
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In Revelation 12:3, the second great wonder in heaven is described as the great red dragon having seven heads and ten horns, and seven crowns upon his heads. The characteristic of this dragon point to his strength and destructive power, and red is indicative of his desire for war. In Revelation 12:9 the dragon is identified as Satan. Remember that Satan is not on any par with God but that was created by God and became a rebellious being. Satan was defeated and judged at the cross of Jesus, John 16:7-11, John 12:30-33. However, Satan is still the ruler of the air and the prince of this world until the return of Jesus Christ with all His saints, Ephesians 2:1-2. Satan retains the power given him until the day he is finally thrown into the lake of fire, which occurs in Revelation 20:7-11. It is extremely important that no attributions of God are applied to Satan:

  • Satan is not omniscient as God
  • Satan is not omnipotent as God
  • Satan is not omni-present as God

There are many other descriptors of Satan, the great red dragon. Scriptures point to the wisdom and beauty that Satan was given when he was created, Ezekiel 28:11-19. Some view his seven heads as symbolic of his wisdom, ten horns his great power, and seven crowns the kingdoms he rules. But, John sees Satan in his true spiritual state, illustrated by his corruption and how ugly and destructive Satan became after his fall. John also observed these characteristics of Satan in the middle of the seven years of tribulation. They are manifest in the last half of the tribulation and directly relate to the view Daniel had of Satan’s protégée, the Antichrist and his characteristics during the great tribulation, Revelation 13:1-18, Daniel 7:1-28. This includes the seven crowns of the dragon reflect the final seven kingdoms that will exist in the revived Roman empire before the end of the tribulation, Daniel 7:8. At the beginning of the tribulation there will be 10 horns (kingdoms), Daniel 2:40-44. However, with the rise of the little horn (the Antichrist), three of the horns will be uprooted, leaving seven horns.

In Revelation 12:4, John observed that the tail of the dragon took 1/3 of the stars, or angels, out of heaven and flung them to the earth, Revelation 12:4. His fall is written in many places such as Isaiah 14:12-15, and his character in John 8:44. The angels who fell with Satan are the demons who support Satan's rule over the earth, Matthew 25:41, Ephesians 6:12. Since Satan cannot be at all places at once, nor observe everyone or their thoughts, these other angels help perform these tasks for Satan. In Zechariah 3:1-2, Satan is seen standing before the Lord accusing the priest, Joshua. The dragon is also seen standing in front of the woman so that when she delivered the child (Jesus), he would devour Him. Throughout Israel’s history Satan has tried to destroy the messianic line of Christ, from the rebellion of Absalom, to Queen Athaliah who tried to kill the whole royal family of Judah, but Joash was protected, 2Chronicles 22:10-12, Haman’s attempt to destroy all the Jews in the book of Esther, or Herod’s attempt to destroy the child Jesus with his order to kill all children two years old and younger in Bethlehem and its surrounding areas, Matthew 2:16.

Satan is described in this chapter as the second great wonder in heaven. Other scriptures point to the wisdom and beauty that Satan was given when he was created, Ezekiel 28:11-19. Some view the seven heads as symbolizing his wisdom, ten horns symbolizing his great power, and the seven crowns symbolize the kingdoms he rules.

As mentioned above, Satan is a judged and defeated created being. Some of the judgments against Satan include:

  • Removal from guarding the throne of God, Ezekiel 28:14
  • The prophecy in the garden of Eden, Genesis 3:14-15
  • His defeat at the cross, John 12:31
  • Being barred from heaven, Revelation 12:9
  • His confinement to the Abyss, Revelation 20:3
  • His torment in the lake of fire, Revelation 20:10

In Revelation 12:5, the child who is born is the Christ, as he is the only one to ascend to the throne, Acts 1:9-11. He is the Shepherd to rule all nations with a rod of iron, Psalms 2:9, Galatians 4:4-5. Only Jesus Christ sits at the right hand of the Father in heaven, Hebrews 2:13, Hebrews 10:11-13, which Stephen witnessed as he spoke of seeing Christ standing at the right hand of God, Acts 7:55-56.

In Revelation 12:6, Israel flees into the wilderness to a place that God has prepared for her for 1,260 days. This may be the ancient city of Petra, but like the Exodus, it could be actually the desert in the Negev. He could provide for them again as He did during the Exodus when He provided all of Israel's needs in the desert with manna, water, and a pillar of fire to warm them at night, and a cloud by day to shelter them from the heat, Psalms 78:12-16, Psalms 78:23-25. The time referred to in this verse is the last half of tribulation, the great tribulation. Jesus warned about this period of time during the Olivet Discourse, Matthew 24:15-22. Ezekiel wrote too about the Lord meeting with the remnant of Israel and having them pass under the rod, Ezekiel 20:32-38. Hosea spoke of the time when he would allure Israel back to him, Hosea 2:14-23. This is the transformation of Israel God spoke of when He will give Israel a new spirit, Ezekiel 36:24-32. However, only a third of the nation of Israel will be preserved at this time and be refined by the Lord, Zechariah 13:7-9.

In Revelation 12:7-9, there is a war in heaven, which occurs during the mid-tribulation. The final war in heaven with Satan at the mid-tribulation time frame, Revelation 12:7, had these characteristics, as seen by John:

  • The war is fought by Michael and his angels with Satan and his angels
  • Satan had access before the throne of God to accuse the righteous and petition the Lord to afflict us, Job 1:6-12, Luke 22:31-34
  • Satan’s demons had access to the third heaven, probably to report and support Satan and his kingdom, Matthew 12:25-28
  • Satan and his forces were defeated by Michael and his angels. So he lost his place in heaven for evermore, Revelation 12:8
  • Satan and his angels were not just thrown down into the air where he currently rules, but all the way down to earth, Revelation 12:9, Ephesians 2:2

The results of the war’s end were, Revelation 12:8-9:

  • Satan and his angels lost and were permanently removed from heaven
  • They could never return to heaven
  • They were cast onto the earth

In Revelation 12:8, Satan and his forces are not strong enough to fight Michael and his angels, and Satan lost his place in heaven forever.

In Revelation 12:9, Satan and his angels will not just be thrown down into the air where he currently rules, but all the way down to earth. In this verse there are several names given to Satan:

  • The great dragon
  • Ancient serpent
  • Devil
  • Satan
  • He is the one who leads the whole world astray

In Revelation 12:10, there is a loud voice from heaven that calls out for the third time. The first was in Revelation 5:2 concerning who is worthy to open the sealed scroll, and second in Revelation 10:3 who had the little scroll. The message is addressed to those in heaven and those on earth, and in particular the church, which has two parts. The first is the little flock, led by the 12 apostles over the Jewish church, and who will oversee Christ's authority on earth. The second is the Body-of-Christ, led by Paul, which consists of both Jew and Gentile, and who will assure Christ's authority in the heavenly realm. For the heavenly inhabitants, the Body-of-Christ, Paul revealed in his epistles, God’s plans that will be fulfilled at this time, where:

  • This the dispensation of the fulness of times where God the Father gathers together in one all things in Christ Jesus, both in heaven and on earth, Ephesians 1:3-12
  • The elements in the kingdom God will now be established, as the Body-of-Christ is put into God’s heavenly kingdom government to establish Christ Jesus’ authority in heavenly places, Philippians 3:20, 2Timothy 2:12, Romans 8;17, Ephesians 3:2-7, 9-10
  • This is the time that if Satan had known would happen, he would not have had Christ Jesus crucified, 1Corinthians 2:7-10
  • All the inhabitants of heaven rejoice at this great event

Revelation is a prophetic book written to the seven Jewish churches in Asia, though it is also for us as the Body-of-Christ. The loud voice in heaven was addressed to the inhabitants of earth, Revelation 12:10. This part of Israel’s prophetic timeline is strongly linked to the book of Daniel. Christ Jesus was brought before the Father and given dominion, glory and an eternal kingdom, Daniel 7:13-14, where:

  • Salvation - all things will now be fulfilled that were promised by the Lord, 1John 3:1-3
  • Strength - this is the end of the Gentile rule when the stone from heaven will crush the multi-metallic image at its toes and turn it into dust, Daniel 2:33-35
  • The kingdom of our God - the stone from heaven turned into a great mountain, Daniel 2:44-45
  • The power and authority of Jesus Christ, Philippians 2:5-11, (every tongue will confess that Jesus is Lord), Ephesians 1:7-10, (the mystery of His will)

The establishment of the Lord's kingdom begins with the removal of Satan for 1,000 years from before the Lord, and he will no longer accuse the saints of God. It is also intriguing to see the reference to night and day in heaven with regard to Satan's activities in accusing the saints before God.

Revelation 12:11 reveals how all saints through Christ overcame Satan's relentless accusations against them by:

  • The blood of the Lamb, Romans 1:16-17, (not ashamed of the gospel), Revelation 5:9-10, (His blood made us a kingdom of priests)
  • The word of their testimony, Colossians 2:1-7, (the mystery of God, namely Christ)
  • They loved not their lives unto death, Philippians 1:19-23, (deliverance), James 4:7-10, (resisting the devil)

In Revelation 12:12 is the announcement of the 3rd woe. There is a call for rejoicing by those in heaven and dwell there, which would include the OT saints, the church, and the slain tribulation saints. The 3rd woe is given to those on the earth and sea because Satan has gone down to them and can no longer ascend up to the heavens, ever again. The 1st woe was the final three trumpets, Revelation 9:12 and the 2nd woe was the ministry of the two witnesses, Revelation 11:14.

With his overthrow from heaven, Satan is filled with fury, as he KNOWS that his time is short. There are only 3 1/2 years left in the tribulation and before he is put into the abyss for 1,000 years. There are three levels in heaven that are referred to in scripture, and until this time Satan had access to them all. Satan had been allowed to the 3rd heaven, and the mountain of God, Ezekiel 28:14-17, 1Kings 8:27, the same place Paul spoke of, 2Corinthians 12:1-4. The 2nd heaven is the celestial or universe of stars, Genesis 1:1, Genesis 1:14-19, Deuteronomy 10:14-15. The lower heaven is the air around earth, in which Satan is now ruler, Ephesians 2:1-3 and is cast out of. This is where the church had meet Christ before the beginning of the tribulation. The Lord will have called the church up to Him in the clouds at the time of the rapture, 1Thessalonians 4:16-18.

In Revelation 12:13, John observes Satan being cast out of heaven, full of fury, and knows that he has just a short time left. In his rage he pursues Israel. Though Satan tried and failed to destroy the Messianic line, or Christ himself at his birth and death, he now tries to destroy the nation of Israel so that God cannot fulfill all his promises to them. Satan's hatred knows no bounds. This is about the same time when the Antichrist is in the land of Israel, establishing his command center in Jerusalem, and has setup his image in the tribulation temple in Jerusalem.

Revelation 12:14 is the beginning of the great tribulation, and the remnant of Israel is fleeing into the wilderness. Whether Israel is led to the desert or to the city of Petra, she is protected by God and given the capabilities (wings of eagles) to swiftly move into the place that God prepared for her for time, times, and half a time (3 1.2 years), Exodus 19:3-6, Ezekiel 35:1-15, Zechariah 13:8-9, Matthew 24:15-22.

In Revelation 12:15-16, John observes the dragon simulating the power of God by trying to use a flood to destroy his enemies as God did during Noah's' day sending a worldwide flood to judge the unrighteous and also against Pharaoh's army as they pursed the children of Israel into the Red Sea. The flood caused by Satan may also represent a military host persecuting Israel. However, the earth swallows the flood, as happened with Kora's rebellion, Numbers 16:23-33.

In Revelation 12:17, as a result of all Satan's attempts to war against God and Israel, with no success, he now wars on the saints in the world who are not part of the group that are being sheltered by God in the wilderness. The dragon (Satan), seeing that his efforts were thwarted by God makes war on the remaining saints who keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ, John 15:10-17, 1John 3:21-24, Hebrews 10:11-14. These are all of the other Christians who are spread throughout the world, and who eventually make up the innumerable multitude before the throne of God. However, some other commentators think that this attack is only upon the sealed 144,000.

This is the time of great persecution for the saints of God seen before the opening of the 7th seal. These are the ones who were slain for the word of God and the testimony they had maintained, Revelation 7:9-17. These are the saints also referred to who were beheaded because of their testimony for Jesus and because of the word of God, Revelation 20:4.